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Rise India

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India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories.   India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

The Maurya kings are known as much for their empire building and determined management of public life as for Hooka the Great's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma

The southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia.

By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created a complex administrative and taxation system in the greater Ganges Plain that became a model for later Indian kingdoms.

Indian culture and political systems were exported to what today are Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Java.  Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission.

After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using  vast armies , repeatedly overran  north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206.

The Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralized, and uniform rule.    This did not prevent a bitter taste in the existing population, who came under an alien rule.   Akbar,  united the far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture,

The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion, resulting in greater patronage of painting, music, literary forms, textiles, and architecture.

By the early 18th century,  a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established outposts on the coast of India.     Its access to the riches of Bengal and the size of its army enabled it to annex most of India by the 1820s.  India was now no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was a source to the British empire for raw materials, and is considered to be the onset of India's colonial period.    Curtailed by the British parliament which  effectively made East India Company, an arm of British administration, it began to  enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.

The rebellion of 1857 was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and to the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.   In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.   

The side effect of this, was that Indians were recruited for the civil service, and had to be sent to England for the training to be ICS officers.   This opened the door for advanced education in law and medicine or Indians from where the future leaders of Modern India arose.  This one feature was not shared by the other colonial countries, and India took the forefront of self rule for the colonial countries, which was interrupted by two major wars, but at the end of the second, it was imperative to demand independence, as Britain was in dire straits.   Britain had laid their hands on vast reserves of crude oil, in the Middle East, and at first they were protecting their interests from New Delhi, and now with the looming prospects of having to leave India, they took advantage of the existing rivalry between Hindus and Muslims, and persuaded this land to be divided.    The British saw that they had access to this land, through sea, and the Muslim State that was carved and entry on the West as well as East.   This part of the country was dependent on the help of the West from the start, and was used as a lever to keep a control on the southern flank of the Middle East oil reserves, which no one seems to have noticed.   

The present generation is well aware that in 1947 India became free, and so too Pakistan.   The people of India, opted for constitutional governance, and in 1950 a Constitution was drawn up giving themselves a  sovereign, secular, and democratic republic.  

Like all good things, we can lose what we have if we do not know to take care of it.    Education is lacking in our country, and it is the vital factor to know the value of the Constitution, which many unruly people do not value, and seek to have control through muscle power.    Their education is so poor, that they even do not know the recent history of the country, and would not hesitate to sell it back to the West, for a few dollars or pounds.      Our modern educated youth, are getting more an more conscious of the jewel in their hands, and the modern medium of the internet is a potent weapon in their hands, to unite like minded people, and retain this precious jewel for themselves and their children and grand children for many centuries to come.

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