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Poverty and Debts

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Poverty means in general a condition of insufficient subsistence, but different persons have different conceptions of sufficiency. At one extreme poverty includes paupers, while its upper limit, at least in common language, varies with the plane of living which is assumed to be normal. As used by economists and social students, it denotes a lack of some of the requisites of physical efficiency; that is, normal health and working capacity. Like pauperism, it implies a more or less prolonged condition; for to be without sufficient food or clothing for a few days is not necessarily to be in poverty. Unlike pauperism, poverty does not always suppose the receipt of charitable assistance. As the definition just given sets up a purely material and utilitarian standard, namely, productive efficiency, we shall in this article substitute one that is more consonant with human dignity, yet which is substantially equivalent in content to the economic conception. — Poverty, then denotes that more or less prolonged condition in which a person is without some of those goods essential to normal health and strength, an elementary degree of comfort, and right moral life.

One of the great causes of poverty — namely, insecurity of employment, of residence, and of shelter — was certainly much less frequent in the older time. If we compare the poverty of today with that of one century ago, we find all authorities agreeing that it has decreased both absolutely and relatively. Against this general fact, however, we must note one or two circumstances that are less gratifying. Both the intensity and the extent of the lowest grade of poverty are probably quite as great now as they were at the beginning of the nineteenth century; and there are some indications that the improvement occurring during the last twenty-five years has been less than in the preceding half-century.

The causes of poverty are very numerous and very difficult to classify.  A better classification is that of immediate and original causes; but it is not always possible to determine which is the true original cause, nor how many of the intermediate causes have operated as mere instruments, and contributed no special influence of their own.  Misfortune was, therefore, the predominant cause in three and one-half times as many cases as misconduct. Among the principal effects of poverty are physical suffering, through want of sufficient sustenance.   In a word, the effects of poverty are sufficiently numerous and sufficiently destructive to elicit the fervent wish that this condition might be totally abolished.

The abolition of all poverty which is not due to individual fault, congenital defect, or unusual misfortune is one of the ideals of contemporary philanthropy and social reform. It is a noble aim, and it ought not to be impossible of realization.

For the great majority, the wish of the Wise Man, "neither poverty nor riches", represents the most favourable condition for right and reasonable life.

A debt arises not merely from a contract of borrowing; something may be due to another in justice for many different reasons, but all these may be reduced to two.   If a man has no money and no means of getting any, he is excused on the ground of impossibility from paying his debts. Even if he could not pay without reducing himself and his family to beggary,

Loans, bonds, notes, and mortgages are all types of debt.   Interest is the fee paid by the borrower to the lender. Interest is calculated as a percentage of the outstanding principal, which percentage is known as an interest rate, and is generally paid periodically at intervals, such as monthly or semi-annually.

Debtors of every type default on their debt from time to time, with various consequences depending on the terms of the debt and the law governing default in the relevant jurisdiction. If the debt was secured by specific collateral, such as a car or home, the creditor may seek to repossess the collateral. In more serious circumstances, individuals and companies may go into bankruptcy.

Besides these more formal debts, private individuals also lend informally to other people, mostly relatives or friends. One reason for such informal debts is that many people, in particular those who are poor, have no access to affordable credit. Such debts can cause problems when they are not paid back according to expectations of the lending household..

Debt will increase through time if it is not repaid faster than it grows through interest. This effect may be termed usury, while the term "usury" in other contexts refers only to an excessive rate of interest, in excess of a reasonable profit for the risk accepted.

This mania of resorting to debts, credit cards, etc started in the 90s after the fall of Soviet Union, where Oligarchs siphoned wealth and spread it in the open market and used their advertising genius to marktet themselves to ignorant people and aimed at those who were easily gullible and who were not prepared to take the advice of those who had managed through the years after the depressions and wars of the eartly 20th century.   Today they are paying the price.   Who knows when they will wake up?
as well as wikipedia.


Suffering and Persecution

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Suffering is a part of life.  Jesus had something to say about it.  When he was telling his apostles how he had to die, Peter his right hand man, objected, and Jesus told him why he was wrong - he had not understood how his Father saw it.   Further he told them, if they wanted to follow him it was very important to take up their crosses and follow him.   They did exactly the same, all of them were killed by the enemies of Truth, and only John died normal death.

Persecution of Christians began with Christ, and it will not end there.   It lasted for 3 centuries, when God decided to make a change.   Constantine came, and all the persecuters had to find other devious ways to get their way.   It went on and off, with false ideas and heresies.   The final break came when there was a upheaval and man Catholics rebelled and began their Protestant Reformation, but there too God had a vision.  God saw what men could not see.  Many would walk on their path, but God is not vengeful, he saves even them.  Even when the Jews persecuted him and nailed to the cross, it was He who forgave them asking  his father,  "Father forgive them for they do not know what they do."  This is the problem, people persecute because what they know is half truth.  God will pardon them too.

Our own physical disabilities and problems are part of that same cross which God gives us to carry.  If we carry willingly, he will help us also to bear them, and use them to help others whom we love.

Now in the 21st century, there are persecutions, and some feel they should rise in protest, and demonstrate.  This was not in the vision of Jesus and only those who have also not understood fully, like St. Peter, should think again and go back  to their basics.

Man judges others from his human point of view.  God does not judge but forgives and loves.  Can we also do the same and pray instead that the persecuters will begin to understand and be saved as well ?   After all they are our own kin.



The Canard of the Dark Ages

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In His relation to men Jesus manifested certain qualities which were perceived by all, being subject to the light of reason; but other qualities were reserved for those who viewed Him in the light of faith. Both deserve a brief study.

From that day till today his influence is felt, and Catholics have held faith in him all these 2000 years.   After the Protestant Reformation, there was a change and the difference of opinions made men look at one another with suspicion and to downplay the former Catholics spread canards like they brought rennaisance in the thinking process and discarded all the past as coming from the "Dark Ages" which we took for granted, as we  studied under the British who  were  Protestant.

When I saw Wikipedia it did not mention the thinking that took place from the time of Christ to the renaissance.  As if, knowlege was brought by the Modern Philosophers !

This is the very reason, for not looking at the Truth impartially.

Today's state of affairs is there for everyone to see.  Who are the ones who reap the benefit and who are suffering ?   Does any one ask why ?

There is no point in convincing others.    If they really want to know, they must  put in their effort to find out and in this, it is God who helps those who want to help themselves.   He is the one who enlightens the minds of the willing.   Those who are having motives, he will let them remain blind and reap the fruit of their own actions.

In this connection read


The causes that have led to the present turmoil i the worldr

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The American depression in the early twenties, caused economic upheavals all over the world and as India was part of the British Empire with close links to America at that time, it also suffered.    Our family Creditors had panicked and were after us to return the money, the matter was handed over to the courts, and it was decided that our properties and coffee estates had to be auctioned.  

Even though the British had promulgated the Partnership Act in 1932, our family still continued as Sole Proprietors, and as a result,  judgement was passed accordingly.  All members of the family were liable for the debts.  My father who did not participate in the management of the estates, was the worst hit, as he had five children, and I was the youngest, a baby.  His brothers and sisters were well settled, and were less affected.   It was a bad year for my parents, and I was born one week before Christmas, on 18th of December.   

Moving out of the ancestral home

My father and mother had moved out of the Balmatta house,after the auction, to my maternal grandfather’s house in the Catholic Bank,    The Balmatta House  is now the Nazareth Convent in Balmatta, Mangalore,     

It is said, that some old furniture from the Balmatta house was sent to my mother’s house on a bullock cart, as my father’s share, which my father did not want to accept, but my mother’s father’s advice prevailed, and he accepted them.  The older brother and sister took the better things.  

My father had done the teacher’s training, and was employed by the (British) Government.  In those days, the Government Board of Education ran schools, in different parts of every district.  Our district was called South Kanara.  It was one of the 26 districts of the Madras Presidency.  To the north of the presidency was Goa, a Portuguese colony.  Further to its north was the Bombay Presidency, which covered a large part of modern day Gujarat, and Maharashtra.  

During the last years of the British Empire, South Kanara district which was the 26th district of the Madras Presidency.   It was divided into 6 talukas.  From the north to south, they were Coondapur, Udipi, Mangalore,Karkal, Puttur and Kasargod.   Karkal was, to the east of Udipi  and to its South was Puttur.  To the east of the district of South Kanara was the Coorg district, where the coffee estates were.  They were in the Western Ghats.  

My father had served in Karkal, Puttur, Mangalore, and Kasargod.  My father used to rent accommodation in places where he was transferred to.  Thus after the collapse of our coffee estates, from 1936 to 1937 he was stationed in Karkal.  From 1938 to 1939 he was stationed in Puttur.  Gratian Farias, later to be the husband of my sister Minna,  lived in Puttur at that time.  His mother, Helen was the first cousin of my father, being the daughter of his father’s sister Regina.

In the coming blogs I wil tell you what I learnt in my 82 years, and what the new gernation isyapping about.


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