Glossary - Plant Derivatives

Coffee is grown in the Southern region of India. Karnataka state grows 73% (22,595 MT) of coffee followed by Kerala 26% (8,200 MT) and non traditional areas 5% (1680 MT). .[1]

Robusta is more tolerant to warm conditions than arabica and constitutes about 65% of India's coffee output. The country produces only 4% of the world's coffee, but exports 70-80% of its output. Robusta beans are used in instant coffee and espresso.


Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. The roasting process is what produces the characteristic flavor of coffee by causing the green coffee beans to expand and to change in color, taste, smell, and density. Unroasted beans contain similar acids, protein, and caffeine as those that have been roasted, but lack the taste. It takes heat to speed up the Maillard and other chemical reactions that develop and enhance the flavor.

As green coffee is more stable than roasted, the roasting process tends to take place close to where it will be consumed. This reduces the time that roasted coffee spends in distribution, helping to maximize its shelf life. The vast majority of coffee is roasted commercially on a large scale, but some coffee drinkers roast coffee themselves in order to have more control over the freshness and flavor profile of the beans.

The coffee roasting process consists essentially of sorting, roasting, cooling, and packaging operations but can also include grinding in larger scale roasting houses. In larger operations, bags of green coffee beans are hand or machine-opened, dumped into a hopper, and screened to remove debris. The green beans are then weighed and transferred by belt or pneumatic conveyor to storage hoppers. From the storage hoppers, the green beans are conveyed to the roaster. Roasters typically operate at temperatures between 370 and 540

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