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Finger Manipulation for Keyboard Playing
In this section we shall introduce the use of finger manipulations as stretches, drags, crosses and replaces.
So far, we restricted ourselves to five finger patterns, but actual tunes have patterns which exceed the five finger span. We use methods of finger manipulation, because the Organ being an instrument of continuous sounds, needs to be approached in a special way, in order to retain the continuity of the sound.
Stretches will be indicated by the Symbol «
Stretches are used when the next note is beyond the reach of the next finger, or there are notes in succession, which need manipulation in such a way, that the music is played without interruption.
Crosses of one of the three fingers: 2, 3 or 4 over the thumb to the left will be indicated by the Symbol ö
Generally done, when we have to reach to a sound which is to the left of the thumb. Note that if we cross with finger two, we get one extra key which can be played with the thumb. If we cross with finger 3, then we get access to 2 keys. If we cross with finger 4, we get access to 3 keys to the left of the thumb.
Crossing of the thumb to the right, under one of the fingers referred to above will be shown by the Symbol è
It is generally done, if there are notes beyond the five finger span on the higher side. In this case, depending on how far the notes are to be reached, you can cross your thumb under fingers 2, 3 or 4.
Dragging a finger to the right by the Symbol ®
If you are playing a note with finger 5, and have to descend 2 notes below, you would generally play it with finger 3. But immediately after it, there is a jump of 5 steps to the higher side, then what will you do? You play the note below with the thumb instead of finger 3, and then you can move easily to the upper note. This is called dragging to the right.
Dragging a finger to the left by the Symbol ¬
This is the opposite situation of the one described above.
Replacing a finger playing a sustained key, with another will be shown by ¯
This is needed, when a sound should not be broken, and there is no other way, but to replace the finger with another finger, so that if you use to replace with a lower finger then you can move up, and if you replace with a right side finger, you can move downwards.
Observe the finger numbers and the manipulation Symbols. As you play them often, you will develop a habit, and know to manipulate instinctively by yourself when later you will have to play different tunes.
Stretching fingers is required in the playing of Chords.
Let us introduce two Chords, the C Chord and the G 7 chord.
There is one common key between the C and G7 chords, and that is: G.
C E G
G B F
Note: the non-common keys are adjacent to each other: C is adjacent to B and E to F.
The following exercises will gradually prepare you to play chords.
Make use of the Chord pattern of C and G7 in ex. 46 and play exercises 3 to 28 (p 8 - 15) using the treble line for the right hand. Omit the Bass line.
Chords are named in different ways. For example, the name of the root or first key name of the set of 3 alternate names, is used as the name of the Chord. Thus C chord means a chord consisting of C E and G keys. The F chord means, a chord consisting of F, A and C keys. A seventh chord would have four alternate keys. Thus G 7 would mean, the root G and the three succeeding alternates: B, D and F.
The three chords whose roots are C , F and G are called the primary chords of the C Scale, and are major Chords. The other chords of the C scale are those of D, E and A, which are minor and are named Dm, Em and Am. The chord on B is called a diminished chord. More explanations about these later.A major scale has a unique structure and retains this, even when the pitch is raised or lowered. When the pitch is raised, the Scale Name changes to that on which it starts. Thus C Major starts on C, and D Major starts on D. What is common is the unique structure. The first fourth and fifth notes bear major chords, the second, third and sixth bear minor chords, and the seventh bears a diminished chord. Hence they are given Roman Numerals: I, IV and V, for major chords, and ii, iii and vi for minor chords, and vii dim for diminished chord Some times a degree sign is placed after Roman numeral vii. An index name is placed after the Roman numeral. - a - i.e. Ia for root position. -b- i.e. iib for 1st inversion, and -c- i.e. vic for second inversion. For more information see Section 7 on page 68, and Appendix A on page 121..
The exercises contain time signature of 3/4 and 2/4 and the subject is discussed in Section 6.