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Vinegar

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Vinegar is an acidic liquid processed from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid (also called ethanoic acid). It also may come in a diluted form. The acetic acid concentration typically ranges from 4 to 8 percent by volume for table vinegar (typically 5%) and higher concentrations for pickling (up to 18%). Natural vinegars also contain small amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids. Vinegar has been used since ancient times and is an important element in European, Asian, and other traditional cuisines of the world.

Culinary uses

Vinegar is commonly used in food preparation, particularly in pickling processes,  and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces such as mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. Vinegar is sometimes used while making chutneys. It is often used as a condiment. Marinades often contain vinegar.

    * Condiment for fish and chips - People commonly use malt vinegar (or non-brewed condiment) on chips.

    * Flavoring for potato chips - many American, Canadian and British manufacturers of packaged potato chips and crisps feature a variety flavored with vinegar and salt.

    * Vinegar pie - is a North American dessert made with a vinegar to one's taste.

    * Pickling - any vinegar can be used to pickle foods.

    * Cider vinegar and sauces - cider vinegar usually is not suitable for use in delicate sauces.

    * Substitute for fresh lemon juice - cider vinegar can usually be substituted for fresh lemon juice in recipes and obtain a pleasing effect although it lacks the vitamin C.

    * Saucing roast lamb - pouring cider vinegar over the meat when roasting lamb, especially when combined with honey or when sliced onions have been added to the roasting pan, produces a sauce.

    * Sweetened vinegar is used in the dish of Pork Knuckles and Ginger Stew which is made among Chinese people of Cantonese backgrounds to celebrate the arrival of a new child.

    * Sushi rice - Japanese use rice vinegar as an essential ingredient for sushi rice.

    * Red vinegar - Sometimes used in Chinese soups

    * Flavoring - used in the Southern U.S. to flavor collard greens, green beans, or cabbage to taste.

Distilled vinegar

Any type of vinegar may be distilled to produce a colourless solution of about 5% to 8% acetic acid in water. This is variously known as distilled, spirit or white vinegar, and is used for medicinal, laboratory and cleaning purposes as well as in cooking, including pickling. The most common starting material, due to its low cost, is malt vinegar.

The term 'spirit vinegar' is sometimes reserved for the stronger variety (5% to 20% acetic acid) made from sugar cane or from chemically produced acetic acid.

Cane

Cane vinegar, made from sugar cane juice, is most popular in the Philippines, in particular, the Ilocos Region of the northern Philippines (where it is called sukang iloko), although it also is produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects, to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste. Contrary to expectation, containing no residual sugar, it is not sweeter than other vinegars. In the Philippines, it often is labeled as sukang maasim, although this is simply a generic term meaning "sour vinegar."

A white variation has become quite popular in Brazil in recent years, where it is the cheapest type of vinegar sold. It is now common for other types of vinegar (made from wine, rice and apple cider) to be sold mixed with cane vinegar to lower the costs.

Palm  

Palm vinegar, made from the fermented sap from flower clusters of the nipa palm (also called attap palm), is used most often in the Philippines, where it is produced, and where it is called sukang paombong.   

If taken from coconut palms. the fermented liquid is called Toddy.    Vinegar is also made from toddy.


Coconut

Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine (particularly in the Philippines, a major producer, where it is called suka ng niyog), as well as in some cuisines of India. A cloudy white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note.

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